Hallucinations are perceptual experiences in the absence of outside stimuli. This form of experience can unfold as different forms of media such as visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, and gustatory. Through their vividness, hallucinations often appear as factual or as augmenting real-world experiences with the content of the hallucination.

The concept of governmental bicameralism was borrowed from civics and introduced into the study of psychology by US-american psychologist Julian Jaynes in his book “The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind“.
Therein he argues that as recently as 3000 years ago, the default mode of human thinking was based on a bicamerial (two-chamber) arrangement: one part of the brain speaking, the other listening.
In Jaynes argument, the breakdown of the barrier between these two seperate systems, alongside the advent of metaphorical language as dominant structure of our thinking, was the cause for the contemplative nature of human consciousness we are accustomed to nowadays.

Split-brain is a condition resulting from surgically detaching the corpus callosum, the primary connection between the brain's left and right hemispheres. Usually this is performed to treat epilepsy cases. When the corpus callosum is cut, the two hemispheres become partially autonomous. Thereafter, each hemisphere can process information independently but has limited access to the other hemisphere's processed information. For instance, when an image is shown to the left visual field (processed by the right hemisphere), the patient may be unable to verbally describe it due to language being localized in the left hemisphere. However, they may be able to draw what was seen or point to the image using their left hand, controlled by the right hemisphere.

Hemispheric specialization or cerebral lateralisation is the division of cognitive functions between the left and the right hemispheres of the brain. Each side has different functions and processes that it is predominantly responsible for. Such that the left hemisphere typically is associated with analytical, mathematical, and logical thinking, and the processing of languages. The right hemisphere is said to be more involved with creativity, intuition, spatial awareness, and the recognition of visual patterns. Connecting the two parts of the brain and allowing them the transfer of information is a complex nerve structure called the corpus callosum.

The ‘unconscious’ refers to a part of the human mind that operates outside of conscious awareness. This includes thoughts, desires, memories, and emotions that are not readily accessible to conscious thought. The concept became popularized by Sigmund Freud, who believed it played a crucial role in shaping human behavior. In its psychological understanding, the unconscious can contain suppressed memories. For example, of dormant conflicts or traumatic episodes, which can influence thoughts and behaviors without them becoming explicit to mind affected by them.

Subconscious refers to a part of the human mind that operates below the level of conscious awareness, encompassing thoughts, feelings, emotions, and memories. It is responsible for automatic processes, such as habits, intuition, and instinctual responses and can store information, emotions, and experiences that have not been fully integrated into conscious simulation of the self.


The theoretical framework of the free energy principle tries to suggest how organisms maintain a coherent internal state while adapting to the outside world. Under the free energy principle, cognizant systems pursue the path of least resistance or surprise by minimizing the difference between predictions, based on their model of the world, and their associated perceptions. The concept draws from Bayesian inference, predictive coding, and information theory to approach how biological systems strive to reach for a state of homeostasis with their environment.
In essence, according to the theory, two things are sought to be minimized:

1] prediction errors occurring in the internal simulation about the outside reality
2] informational distance between prior principles and this generative model of the world.

A simulation is the process of imitating or replicating the characteristics and circumstances of a real-world system or process. The created model or representation of the actual system then can be run under controlled conditions, providing information on how it would behave under diverging conditions. Simulations are usually computational and include physical models or mathematical parameters to define how the system can process or iterate on previous states. Dreams can be thought of as a simulation of possible or probable future episodes or as processing of events that already occurred during waking hours. The vivid simulation we are familiar with as conscious perception approximates physical processes around us. Dreams and the simulation of consciousness inside the brain are different from mere computations in that there are associated states of perception to them.

Substance dualism or mind-body-dualism points to an unresolved conflict between physical reality and its associated concrete stimuli and the simulation the mind creates from these to make sense of the world around. It assumes that there is a mental substance and a physical substance, existing on two different planes of reality: the mind and the body.
Inside the brain, physical states are translated into electrochemical signals and then... well, that's the problem. There is no direct and clear connection from a physically computational world to the sense that something actually feels like something. There is correlation but no direct causation. Both substances, when claiming to be fundamental, face the predicament of explaining how the other arises out of the prior foundation: How does consciousness produce matter? How do physical processes produce conscious states?

Sympoetic systems embrace the collaborative and interdependent relationship between different entities in creating a shared reality, acknowledging the interconnectedness and co-creative nature of organisms, environments, and conscious entities. In her book ‘Staying with the Trouble’ Donna Haraway mobilizes the term to describe some entanglements between non-human and human interests.
As opposed to autopoiesis, sympoiesis appreciates mutual influence and coevolutionary dynamics among the actors involved. Sympoetic thinking can be imagined as cognition across multiple cerebral motors.

A philosophical zombie refers to a hypothetical being that on its outside seems indistinguishable from a human. The philosophical zombie, however, is devoid of consciousness or any subjective experience.
The thought experiment is often used in discussions around consciousness and the mind-body problem and raises questions about whether consciousness can be explained solely in terms of physical processes or if it requires a non-physical mental component.

participatory a NTHROPIC PRINCIPLE:
The participatory anthropic principle suggests that the existence of conscious observers plays a fundamental role in our universe. According to this theory, the physical laws and mathematical constants inside the universe must be compatible with the existence of conscious beings who can observe and reflect upon their surroundings. It implies that our observations and experiences are not mere coincidences, but rather the result of a self-selecting process where only those universes capable of sustaining life and consciousness are accessible to observation.
In short: the universe looks as it does because we are here to measure it.


Clarke's laws:
In his Essay “Hazards of Prophecy: The Failure of Imagination” science fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke states the following three principles:

1] When a distinguished but elderly scientist states that something is possible, he is almost certainly right. When he states that something is impossible, he is very probably wrong.
2] The only way of discovering the limits of the possible is to venture a little way past them into the impossible.
3] Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.

Non-ordinary states of consciousness, (NSCs) refer to altered or exceptional states of consciousness that differ from everyday waking states. NSCs can be induced by means of meditation, psychedelic substances, or spiritual practices and are characterized by changes in perception, cognition, and self-awareness, causing phenomenon such as mystical experiences, ego dissolution, or transcendental states. Their accounts often lack coherency, which is usually not perceived as such during the experience. Dreams are probably the most common form of NSCs.

Augmenting something means to enhance or improve it by adding new layers of complexity increasing referentiality or manifesting connections otherwise not perceived. Augmentation can be performed by extending the human body with technological devices, such as wearables or implants in order to enhance cognitive abilities or sensory perception.


Failure of Imagination:
A failure of imagination refers to a situation, where an undesirable event could have been predicted and therefore prevented through appropriate action, but due to a lack in foresight ultimately wasn't.

Wicked problem:
The climate crisis, alignment of artificial intelligence, dealing with a global pandemic. These challenges could be considered wicked problems, although definitive formulations of wicked problems can’t exist.
They are unique and impossible to be understood until after a solution is conceived of. The implementation of  which is usually a one shot operation. These solutions can be neither right nor wrong, usually becoming the symptom of yet another problem.

Accelerationism proposes to intentionally accelerate social, economic, or technological development and suggests that by intensifying and pushing existing systems to their limits, desired transformation to become more realistic. Accelerationists envisions a state, where a current undesirable system – be it economic, political, or social – is overcome by reaching a point of breakage and, ultimately, dissolution of the status quo.


Hypertext is a digital information structure that allows non-linear navigation between interconnected text elements. It refers to a system of linking text passages or documents together through embedded hyperlinks in order to move seamlessly between related or referenced information by simply clicking on the links. Such hyperlinks enable the distracted wandering between authors, writing, and concepts. I see it as a reflection of today’s impediments to collective as well as individual attention spans. In this case, hypertext is what I explored as a mode of writing and thinking. I failed at producing coherent texts – if that should have been an expectation or goal.

Hypermedia is a multimedia system that allows users to interact with various types of media, such as text, images, audio, and video, embedded in an interconnected constellation. These web-like structures invite for non-linear navigation and exploration of content. Hypermedia can help to clarify complex matters, or to obscure them by spilling an overwhelming amount of information and stimuli onto our perception.

The concept of the hyperobject was introduced by philosopher Timothy Morton to describe objects or entities that are vast, nonlocal, distributed, and beyond human comprehension. Hyperobjects span across different scales and dimensions and have effects that are hard to grasp exhaustively due to their complexity and interconnectedness. They are a conceptual approach to describing phenomena on a cosmic, planetary, economic, political, or social scale.

Hyperspace refers to a speculative concept in physics that implies the existence of additional dimensions beyond the three spatial dimensions not yet accessible to our conception. It is often summoned in science fiction as theoretical technology that allows for faster-than-light travel across vast distances of space, enabling rapid interstellar travel.
I think of hyperspaces as articulating the immediacy of overwhelming multiplicities and relationalities. Hyperspaces give access to multi-modal, multi-medial forms of perception and cognition. They can only be visualized through abstraction or by reduction to their individual parts. They are too much to handle; too immediate and too remote; too simple and too complex; too transparent and too obscure. It’s like the movie ‘Everything Everywhere All at Once’ ( which I am allergic to for some unidentified reason) but without the many Oscars.

Generative pre-trained transformer:
A Generative pre-trained transformer is a language model and currently the predominant approach to creating something like artificial intelligence. Through deep learning mechanisms, GPTs are trained to mimic human language output. Pre-trained means they are working with a corpus of texts or datasets, which can include any kind of written language, including code. Relevant text inputs are then sampled and extracted from these publicly available datasets or from private collections of data and completed by assesing the probability for every next word in order to produce a coherent paragraph-based text output.
Since this is a purely statistical operation - GPTs have no means of really understanding the output they are producting (yet) - it can cause the model to hallucinate.

Large language models (LLMs) refer to advanced artificial intelligence systems that are designed to process and generate human-like text. These models get trained on multiple sources of information to develop a comprehensive understanding of language patterns. They employ deep learning techniques, such as neural networks, to analyze and generate text in different languages, including coding languages. They are capable of performing tasks like answering questions, generating coherent paragraphs, summarizing information, and engaging in interactive conversations. So far, they merely operate based on statistical patterns and the information they have been trained on.

Affordance is understood as the naturally or intuitively associated use that a tool or object signals to a person. This is an important principle in design to communicate clearly what an object is meant to do for a potential user, giving him or her an implicit conception of how to interact with it.


Liminal Persona:
The cultural anthropologist Victor W. Turner defined liminal persona, or liminal beings as not contained in socially fixed categories. They are of a transitory nature and invisible in the common societal structure, having left one state of being and not yet fully belonging to the next one. They are trespassers, wandering astray from the norm.
Liminal entities often appear in myths, depicted as hybrid creatures or monsters, unifying opposite qualities in the same body.

Rite de Passage:
The concept of the rite of passage was first conceptualized by French ethnologist Arnold van Gennep and later picked up and developed further by Victor W. Turner.
They typically refer to a threefold structure transmuting an individuum from one place in a social hierarchy to another:

1] Separation phase (rites de séparation): leaving the previous position in the hierarchy
2] Intermediate or liminal phase (rites de marges): undefined and vulnerable to the influence of exterior forces
3] Integration phase (rites d'agrégation): a new identity is embodied